What is man without the beasts? If all the beasts were gone, men would die of great lonliness of spirit.  For whatever happens to the beasts , soon happens to man. All things are connected.
Chief Seattle (Duwamish Tribe)
Until he extends the circle of his compassion to all living things, man will not himself find peace.
Dr. Albert Schweitzer


As a little girl every day was filled with something naturally spectacular to view and experience. A tree was never just a tree, it was a bigger than life teacher, long time friend and story teller, a  plain old rock might as well have been a sparkling diamond for how much it was valued. The world and all it's living inhabitants, were something to study, feel, smell and gaze upon in wonder and amazement, to cherish and hold sacred.  I shall never forget my parents cutting down some trees in the yard and me curled all up on my bed wheeping for the loss. The surrounding energy of life filled me with a yearning and passion. 
 The philosophy to treat all sentient beings with the upmost of respect, and feeling was nurtured and evolved via truly living among the wilds of nature and getting down at it's level, to understand other worlds and lives. As an adult this philosophy has not changed, and transfers over into providing the upmost of care and enrichment for the animals that reside at Wolf Echo Valley. But what is enrichment and why is it important?
In the wild wolves spend their time focusing on key elements of survival. Foraging for food/seeking out prey sources, establishing good relationships with pack members, securing a mate /procreating (mating to have pups) for the future of the pack, protecting habitat from other wild canids (such as wolves and coyotes that may compete for food/territory resources), and watching out for dangers such as hunters.  In the wild wolves are continuously stimulated mentally, and physically via their natural surroundings , this keeps wolves alert, attentive, and thriving. 
 But captivity/zoos/wildlife facilities in the past have not served wild animals as well as their natural environmental upbringing does.  Due to lack of challenging activities and objects for their emotional and physical well being, animal behaviorists, caretakers, scientists/biologist started to see an alarming rate of captive wild animals displaying disturbing emotional and physical symptoms such as pacing, self mutilation, catatonic movements, aggression, hostility, depression,  illnesses created by stress, and more.  Experts in the field started to realize if they cannot place the wild animals back into the wild, they must do what they can to bring the wild to the animal in captivity, in order to stimulate their natural behavioral patterns.
Here at AWA-AWE, the wolves physical and emotional well being is of the upmost importance.  We strive, and will only continue to strive to provide as natural a life as is possible in captivity to our captive born ambassadors. To achieve this, their natural habitat and behaviors (wolf ethology) have been thoroughly studied in order to provide all the necessary stimulations, to keep the wolves content and stress free.
Some of AWA's suggestions and recommendations of Enrichment for wolves in captivity are as follows:
previously written/printed in A Wolf Encounters Copyright care guide:
Please be sure to also visit REEC's site after the following list to better assess and evaluate your enrichment programs, they have an awesome inspirational guide!
1) Ice Cubes either in the winter time or the hot dog days of summer, wolves LOVE to play with ice! mix this idea up and freeze tuna juice or chicken broth and watch these yummy wolf pops go FAST!
2) Puzzle Balls/Buster Cubes: These balls have a stategically placed hole in a tough rubber form where you can place tasty dry tidbits of food. When the wolf plays with these balls and it is rolled just the right way, they are rewarded with a tasty treat!
3) Hanging Tire: Take an old car/truck tire one can use various sides hang from a tree with a chain and place tasty treats inside watch them use their minds.
4) Scents: Take various natural non toxic oils or other non toxic scents like vanilla extract, lemon, sprinkle cinnamon, spread mustard, etc place a few dabs around on the trees, on logs, on rocks, plants watch them try and roll on the objects (scent roll) you can just see the smiles on their faces
5) kiddies pool:  For a cheap fun source of water fun buy a cheap plastic kiddies pool if you do not have an inground cement pool. Fill with water and watch the water and fur fly in and out as the dig, and romp in the cool wet fun.
6) Stock tanks: Large farm stock tanks can also serve as great lazing water pools, and ones the wolves cannot eat! Don't be surprised to spot a wolf simply laying emerged up to their necks in these tanks. Old bathtubs can also be used.
7) Build a fun playground. Remember the old log balancing beams at your school yards playground? well these can serve wolves just as well. Build some wooden platforms, a crawl tube, a walkway/ramp leading up to a lookout tower area, use old tractor tires cut in half and plant into the ground upright for some fun climbing aparatus' and launching/sitting /standing pads, build sandboxes, building cement/roick caves or underground den/homes.
8) Large meaty Beef/Bison/ bones can provide hours of satisfactory chewing, on top of cleaning the wolves pearly whites.  
9) Boomer Balls: Come in various sizes these are virtually indestructable and can provide a couple hours of fun exercise and mind stimulation.
10) Pasta Hang: Once in a while on special occasions cook up some spaghetti and hang the noodles around on various tree branches around the habitat, watch them forage and hunt for these delicious noodles.
11) Plant berry trees: (Saskatoon, choke cherry, wild raspberry) within the habitats, wolves will happily spend some time picking berries (even delicately) off the trees and it will keep them entertained
12) Carcass feeding: Feeding whole animals (hide/fur/feathers/ bones included)  help to stimulate and reinforce natural social hierarchy in wolf packs. Feeding this way helps to provide a lot of mental and physical stimulation to the entire pack, not to mention the benefits of an increased digestive and oral stimulation.
13) Old garage doors can be used as shelters from the rain, shade from the sun (lean-to's) and platforms to lay on.
14) Blowing edible bubbles this can be fun to watch the wolves run around chasing bubbles. They come in varied flavors. We use edible bubbles from here
15) Throwing old dead logs and tree branches into the habitat this brings new interesting smells with it
16) Walks: Though some facilities do not agree with this policy , still other zoos and centers have embraced the idea and take their socialized wolves out for walks around the grounds on chains, this brings about not only physical stimulation, but mental stimulation due to new sights and smells. Pairing up wolves also gives them a friend to run and play with to help keep their muscles strong.

17) Play/sing music: Do you love to sing? then what can be a better audience than one whose only critque will come  in the form of a song in return? So fine tune those pipes and sing away! and make the hills around alive with music! 

18) Throw Snowballs: These are fun to make in the winter and throw out and into the air towards the wolves, watch  them bounce around in delight to try and capture these tasty snow cones! add a bit of tuna or salmon juice on the snowball for an extra fun response!

19) Power/electric cable spools: These huge spools if you can get ahold of them through your power/electrical company can provide some great climbing/tower/lookout apparatus for the wolves.

20) RawHide Bones

21) Hidden MeatBalls: Hide a bunch of these throughout the enclosure, and watch the animals follow the scent!

22) Food Pastes: Food ground into pastes and spread onto logs and other items within the enclosures, dont be surprised if the wolf starts smelling like a fruit drink or a land fish!

23) Plastic Jugs and Bottles: watch carefully so injestion does not occur. I love to throw these to the wolves, and watch how they bat these around for a while.

24) Tires : Tires of various shapes and sizes, from car to large tractor tires. Tractor tires can be cut in half and placed upright into the ground to give the wolves something to jump onto and play on.

25) Disco Ball: Disco ball placed outside of the enclosure as to create moving spots of light throughout , promotes/ stimulates curiosity,chasing etc.

26) Hotdog stash: Hot dogs are a wolves best friend *grin* they will literally do anything for these be it during a training session or simply to stash in different places in the habitat. They will be sure to smile. Hotdogs are a stable treat around here and I buy them by the box load. 

27) Fruits: Apples, pears, coconuts, pumpkins, melons throw these to the wolves and watch them have loads of fun!.

28) SandBoxes: Wolves LOVE to dig, building them their very own sandbox will provide a great time one can use old tires or rail ties to create the border of the box. Bring in a load of sand and watch how this box soon becomes a  favored spot .

29) Play various instruments: I have a variety of instruments here such as flutes, and drums. Wolves love to hear other forms of music and they wont  critique your work. Expect a beautiful symphony in thanks.

30) Stuffies: All of my wolf pups are given a variety of stuffed toys, every second hand store I visit I pick some cheap stuffies up. This continues even into adulthood with the wolves and they absolutely love getting a new stuffie to throw around for awhile!

31) Create a large rock pile: Go rock hunting and bring back the largest rocks you can find and build a large rock pile for the wolves to clamber around on.

32) Grass and Bush cuttings: We cut the grass and smaller bush once a month around the ranch, the wolves LOVE to scent roll on such things and have a heck of a good time getting all green!! Wolves Gone Wild!

33) Create look out tower areas/wolf tree houses: Wolves LOVE to be up HIGH! they are like cats that way.

34) Agility equipment: Build an a-frame, swing bridge, and other stimulative equipment to get wolves minds working.

35) Banana pops:  I take whole bananas, dip them in chicken broth then freeze.

36) remote control dubebuggy/truck/ and remote control flying machines (helicopters).   We have something that looks like a little dragon fly, that we use to fly around the enclosure.  It is fun to see them watching and leap around in the air to try and catch this thing.  The remote control all terrain dune buggy is great to use around the perimeter/outside of the enclosure, where they give chase but can't destroy it. If your habitat is big enough like ours is, it really gives them a stimulative work-out!



The following Site  (clock Logo) Regional Environmental Enrichment Conferences helps all captive wildlife keepers to better their enichment progams, and to assess their current progams to see if they are working to the benefit and not detriment to the animal. There is also a PDF one can click on upon entering the site on the homepage towards the bottom called A keepers guide to evaluating enrichment This is an *excellent* guide for any keeper to evaluate and assess progams by.

Click on The Logo
For Assessing Environmental Enrichment

The Shape of Enrichment (everything enrichment a-z) and the above REEC combine to form "Shape-Regionals" check the site out for more info.


Reading Material  
All the following books I list and then some are on this site for all to discover and enjoy. Please check this site out, it's a great resource for anyone's library!

Behavior of Captive Wild Animals
by Hal Markowitz
1978. ISBN=0882293850

Creative Conservation : Interactive Management of Wild and Captive Animals
by P.J.S. Olney, G.M. MacE, A.T.C. Feistner
1994. Hardcover. ISBN=0412495708

Behavioral Enrichment in the Zoo
by Hal. Markowitz

The last book not only helps caretakers understand the canines in their lives but to understand themselves and other human beings


To find the following guidelines and more great ideas and resources please check out The Toronto Zoo at the below Link
Suggested Guidelines for Carnivore Enrichment

The order carnivora include the felid, canid, ursid, raccoon, weasel, civet, and hyena families.  This diverse group of animals shares a common lineage, the possession of four so-called carnassial teeth. A minority such as wolves, weasels, otters, felines and polar bears are still true meat eaters, yet most members of this order have adapted to a broader diet. Such animals are considered omnivorous, insectivorous or herbivorous (Ewer, 1973).

Carnivores inhabit every major ecosystem, including forests, deserts, grasslands and tundra. They have cursorial, arboreal, fossorial and aquatic habits. Communication occurs socially through expression and posturing, scent marking, vocalizations and olfaction. Olfaction, one of the primary senses in gathering information, is significant to carnivore behaviour, but vision and auditory senses are also very important. They are primarily nocturnal animals with the exception of some species such as the cheetah, which rely on daytime vision for hunting. Many are considered solitary but some exhibit cooperative behaviours with conspecifics, such as coatis, in which males are solitary and females form tight social groups. Others, such as the mongoose, form groups for defence against predators (Ewer, 1973).

Feeding strategies among carnivores are generally similar in regards to hunting and foraging. Some species have special adaptations whereby they rely on olfaction to pursue prey. Some hunt in packs while others locate prey using refined tactile system, hunt by ambush or tunnel after prey. The very nature of opportunistic carnivores is to hunt and forage for their food, often spending hours doing so (Macdonald, 1984). Wild felines and canines may spend hours crushing bone, tearing flesh and plucking fur from a carcass while bears may spend approximately 80% of their time searching for food. Typical carnivore behaviours to consider in an enrichment program include foraging, olfaction, digging, nesting, denning, courtship and sexual activity .

Captive carnivores are known for exhibiting stereotypic, self destructive or abnormal behaviours. These behaviours can include overactivity, inactivity, pacing, head swinging and over-grooming, many of which are frequently observed in bears, felines, canids, weasels, civets and hyenas. These activities may be a method for animals to cope with inadequate, sterile environments, or they could be expressing redirected searching behaviour such as mate finding, home range patrol, or hunting (Mellen et al., 1998). Loud noises, construction, small quarters, being locked inside, expectations of food, once- a -day feeding, scheduled feedings, and lack of novelty may also contribute to these behaviours. Evaluation of abnormal behaviours can help staff determine what action should be taken to discourage these undesirable behaviours. Foraging, exploratory and play behaviours have all been known to interrupt stereotypic patterns (Carlstead, 1998).

When developing enrichment programs it is important to look at the natural history of each species. Social structure, habitat use, feeding strategy, diet, primary senses and activity cycles should be used to plan enrichment (Shepherdson and Mellen, 1993). It is important that staff, supervisors, and veterinarians be consulted before changes in daily care are initiated. The involvement of other departments at individual institutions or experts in their field may help spark new ideas for enrichment. Who, how, and when enrichment is delivered is important in planning enrichment. Forming a committee, or utilizing volunteers and docents can be beneficial in the implementation of enrichment. An assessment of each enrichment activity is important in evaluating and documenting what works and is beneficial to the species.

Exhibit Enrichment

Providing choices for captive animals allows them a degree of control over their lives (Markowitz, 1998), such as the option of having shelter or sun, heated rocks, or cooling systems. Complexity in the environment is important when designing a carnivore exhibit and enrichment should be included in the initial phases when possible. Naturalistic enclosures may be difficult to change, however by designing truck access into a new exhibit, large logs, rocks and substrates can be readily replaced. Adding substrates and new furniture on top of existing concrete or tile floors
can enhance older exhibits.

With some creativity, older exhibits can be renovated into functional yet enriched environments. Vertical and horizontal spacing is important in terms of how animals utilize their exhibits. Focus should be on quality rather than quantity of space. Many carnivores are arboreal, arranging different levels with perches, creating a 3-D appearance, provides complexity in the exhibit which allows for climbing, leaping and jumping behaviours can promote activity (Mellen and Shepherdson, 1997). Moving perches can simulate the naturalness of trees, and changing furniture can stimulate activity, as animals will likely explore their new surroundings. Ropes and vines can also provide locomotion opportunities for some of the more arboreal carnivores such as binturongs, clouded leopards, margays, ringtails etc.

Visual barriers in the form of vegetation or hollow logs can provide privacy and a sense of security. Large rocks, trees or hilly landscapes can also create visual barriers that may help decrease food competition and aggression within a population while also adding a sense of visual complexity where the animals do not see their entire environment from all areas (Mellen et al., 1998). Trees, both natural and artificial, provide rubbing areas and provide scratching, and climbing opportunities. Rotten logs, mounds of dirt and logs drilled with holes and stuffed with food items offer animals a chance to forage, rip apart and dig for insects and other treat items. Living trees and vegetation provide shade and cool areas; however, with some animals trees may need to be protected with hot-wires or tree skirting to prevent destruction or escape. Natural burrows or dens may increase reproductive activity.

Substrates such as mulch, sand, soil, moss, leaf litter and grass provide different textures for foraging and bedding. Water features such as pools or streams can provide enrichment to carnivores that may swim or fish. Deep and shallow pool areas offer choices to aquatic carnivores, therefore creating a more interesting environment.

In addition to exhibit areas, holding areas should be carefully planned. Taken into account should be whether the animals will spend most of their time in this area and if so should it simulate a natural environment? Enrichment features should be provided especially if the animals spend most of their time off exhibit. Non-natural items can be utilized in holding areas if they cannot be used in the natural enclosure. Designing specific areas for medical procedures with squeeze cages or training areas should also be considered, as they can be beneficial for veterinary exams and animal training programs, which can also be a challenging form of enrichment.

Dietary Enrichment

Foraging behaviours are important to the well being of carnivores. Novel presentation of food items can be accomplished by hiding food throughout the exhibit in brush piles, mulch pits, in logs, under rocks and high in trees or perches. The method and timing of food delivery, such as randomized feeding schedules, the unpredictability of delivery , and increased number of feedings can help encourage foraging and reduce the frequency and duration of stereotypic behaviours (Shepherdson et al., 1993). Variety, such as alternating whole or chopped food items, is significant in both food delivery and method to discourage boredom. Encouraging stalking, crouching, chasing, leaping, reaching, grabbing, pulling, jumping and climbing for food allows for natural hunting behaviours. Meat sticks, treat boxes, lures, cowtails and horsetails can help elicit these natural behaviours.

Carnivores have the capability of crushing bone and tearing flesh. Feeding carcass foods and bones can elicit natural behaviours and also leads to healthier teeth. Crickets, mealwonns and fish are examples of natural prey items that can easily be fed live. Because carnivores expend a considerable amount of energy foraging for food, efforts should be made to allow them to work for their meals. The complexity of the food items offered adds an element of expending energy and increasing activity (UFAW). A polar bear having to work for its diet which has been frozen in ice, or an ocelot that has to work for its food by leaping on a moving stick to get to its food are only a few examples of the wealth of possibilities of dietary enrichment.

Social Enrichment/Olfactory Enrichment

Many institutions exhibit carnivores such as felines or otters in pairs or groups. This does not always duplicate their natural social situations in which the animals are generally solitary except during breeding. However, companionship in captivity can be beneficial as it can encourage healthy competition as well as occasional aggressive tendencies and cooperative behaviours. Carnivores have complex social systems through communication and scent marking by way of feces, urine, and glandular secretions which furnish conspecifics with information regarding animal territories and movement. The function of social odours is often used for identification of individuals animals and reproduction (Ewer, 1973). Carnivores, such as the skunk, have adapted a defensive system of using scent to ward off predators.

Extracts, perfumes, spices, hunting lures and aromatic oils provide opportunities for carnivores to investigate, mark or rub on new scents. Bedding, feces or fur from prey animals or conspecifics in another area can also stimulate the olfactory sense. Proper social situations can increase reproductivity and the occurrence or natural social behaviours.

Interactions between caregivers and animals can be beneficial to animal well being. Providing a positive and secure environment can lead to a trusting relationship. This relationship, especially with small felids, may increase reproductive success and decrease pacing (Mellen, 1998; Poole, 1998).

Novel Enrichment! Manipulable Objects

Artificial and novel objects can encourage natural behaviours via the expression of manipulation and exploratory behaviours. A feline may rip a cardboard box to shreds as if it were its prey. The use of mechanical prey in which cheetahs pursue and capture a moveable target can be beneficial for locomotor activity and mental stimulation (Lindburg, 1998). While the provision of novel items is important for stimulating activity, removal of novel items for a period of time will help maintain interest when the item is again presented at a later date.

Introducing novel objects outside of a holding area where the animal can still view them can help desensitize the animals to the new objects, and thus potentially lower stress levels. Animals may not react initially to a novel item or may react adversely to new objects in their environment, but leaving the items in the enclosure for a period of time or offering them at later date can encourage interaction with the items. A new approach to a device being offered can make a significant difference. It is important to remember that what is successful with one animal may not work for another. Ideas from ungulate, bird or primates enrichment programs may be appropriate for carnivores as well. Wild animals encounter unpredictable and stressful situations whereas their captive counterparts are exposed to different and less frequent stresses. Providing negative stimuli may benefit animals by helping them to cope with changes or uncertainty in their environment (Carlstead and Shepherdson, 1994). It is best to keep in mind the behaviour of the individual species, its medical and behavioural background when formulating enrichment ideas.

Safety Considerations

Veterinary and staff approval is important when designing enrichment ideas. Animals should be observed for problems when offered new enrichment.  Ingestion of novel items such as plastic containers, traffic cones, burlap bags, ropes etc., can cause serious medical problems. Individual animals may react differently to enrichment items offered. For instance, a mountain lion at one institution may play with a plastic jug, biting and crushing and swatting it around, while similar animals at another institution may choose to eat such items.

Rope or chain are often used for perching or to hang objects. To ensure that animals can not become entangled, such items should be hung so there are no loops at attachment points, or that a foot, leg, or head can not get caught. In addition, animals may have a tendency to ingest ropes used for hanging objects. Chain or natural rope may offer more feasible options and should be used when possible.

Horticulturists can be consulted regarding plant toxicity. Some carnivores eat plants; therefore it is wise to be aware of the types of vegetation that are utilized in carnivore enclosures. Browse should be rinsed to rid it of any chemicals if the source is unknown, especially if it is donated or retrieved from the city forestry department. Feces from other animals which is offered to carnivores should be checked for parasites on a routine basis.

Carcass food should be obtained only from reliable sources. Many companies and private individuals breed animals specifically for this purpose. If road kill animals are used in carcass feeds, only freshly killed animals that have not been sitting in the elements for hours or show any signs of parasites should be used. Freezing a carcass for several days can also help reduce the risk of parasite infestations.

Some animals may become possessive of enrichment items and aggressive toward cagemates. To help reduce the potential of aggression, several of the same item can be scattered throughout the exhibit, providing ample activity for all inhabitants.

Particularly for carnivores., the ability to express predatory behaviour can be important aspect of a captive lifestyle. However, fake prey items (scarecrows, etc.) should not resemble humans in any way, to minimize the potential of predators learning that it is acceptable to attack humans. In addition, it is important to realize the risk to the safety of the animals and staff when new items or staff (volunteers, docents, etc.) are utilized during media events or special events that attract large crowds. Animals may show increased anxiety or aggression, which coupled with the potential of inexperienced staff making mistakes in animal shifting, can result in the animals posing danger to each other, the staff or the public.

The following are examples of enrichment that may be appropriate for carnivores, as well as an overview of safety issues that should be considered in the implementation of enrichment.

Exhibit Enrichment


Visual barriers for privacy and for stalking prey: hollow logs, trees, live vegetation, termite mounds, mounds of dirt, large rocks and other topography, areas which are visible to the public but allow the animals to feels hidden and secure


Trees/logs: natural or artificial, log structures to climb, rub or scratch on, drilled with holes for treats, hollow logs


Natural substrates to provide digging opportunities or for scattering or hiding food: mulch, sand, gravel, soil, moss, leaf litter


Water features: shallow and deep pools, streams, waves


Plants: for visual barriers, grasses for grazing, herbs


Vertical and horizontal space usage: to provide complexity, jumping and climbing opportunities


Removable perching at various levels which can be changed periodically


Heat/Cold/Mist: heated rocks, cooler or misting system


Natural holes or dens


Holes placed high in rocks for hiding food and to encourage jumping


Concealed nest boxes


Rotation of exhibit furniture


Vines or ropes


Training devices such as squeeze cages


Rotation of carnivores through "prey" exhibits.


Dietary Enrichment

Novel live prey: feeder fish, mealworms, crickets, grasshoppers, grubs, lizards, rodents

Carcass foods: chicken, rabbit, rats, mice, lizards, guinea pigs, quail, deer, elk, road kill animals

Crayfish, clams

Bones: horsetail, knuckle, ribs, chicken necks

Hides from rabbit, deer, elk

Varied feeding schedules and several feedings per day

Brush pile feeder: food items hidden in piles of branches

Meat and blood trails

Meat sticks: animal jumps on or reaches to grab food on stick, bungee cord or spring

Honey and feeder logs (made from natural logs)

Blood, fish, meat, fruit, vegetable popsicles

Scattered or hidden food items

Variety of chopped and whole food items

Melons, gourds, pumpkins to provide different textures

Lures: rabbit, rat

Cowtails, horsetails

Eggs: raw and boiled


Mealworm or cricket dispensers (PVC pipe dispensers)

Novel Enrichment/Social Enrichment

Olfactory: fur, urine and feces or substrates from prey/same species, extracts, spices, herbs, perfumes, bedding from prey species, hunting lure scents, aromatic oils


Boomer balls, Jungle balls, balls with holes drilled throughout to create food dispensers


Cardboard: boxes, paper towel tubes, carpet tubes, cereal box with hide treats inside


Grain bags, paper bags


Burlap bags


Kong toys


Dog toys: leather dog chews, Nylabones


Plastic jugs or containers


Artificial rat: remote controlled rat that runs through hollow log


Under ground food pipe: PVC buried with food placed inside; can be covered with dirt


PVC for balance: large pipe that animals can walk through or walk on top of






Beer kegs, barrels


Attachments: chain, natural rope, bungee cord to hang objects or food


Feed box full of treats on top of cage (animal must use log or rope to climb)


Plastic traffic cones


Timer release system: cricket cannons or fish released at various times during the day


Pine cones, palm fronds, bamboo tubes


Snake sheds


Rawhide bones, pig ears, hooves




Brush piles


Christmas trees




Auditory: nature sounds, sounds from same species



Carlstead, Kathy. 1998. Determining the Causes of Stereotypic Behaviours in Zoo Carnivores: Towards Appropriate Enrichment Strategies. Second Nature: Environment Enrichment for Captive Animals.


Carlstead, K. and D. Shepherdson. 1994. Effects of Environmental Enrichment on Reproduction. Zoo Biology. 13: 447-458.


Ewer, R.F.11973. The Carnivores. Cornell University Press.


Lindburg, D.G. 1998. Enrichment of Captive Mammals through Provisioning. Second Nature: Environment Enrichment for Captive Animals.


Macdonald, D. 1984. The Encyclopaedia of Mammals. Equinox (Oxford) Ltd.


Markowitz Hal and C. Aday. 1998. Power for Captive Animals: Contingencies and Nature, Second Nature: Environment Enrichment for Captive Animals.


Mellen, I. D. 1998. Optimal Environment for Captive Felids. Husbandry Manual for Small Felids. AZA Felid Taxon Advisory Group.


Mellen, J.D., M. P. Hayes, and D. J. Shepherdson. 1998. Captive Environments for Small Felids. Second Nature: Environment Enrichment for Captive Animals.


Mellen, J. D. , and D. J. Shepherdson. 1997. Environmental Enrichment for Felids: An Integrated Approach. International Zoo Yearbook: 35: 191-197.


Poole, T.B. 1998. Meeting a Mammal's Psychological Needs: Basic Principles. Second Nature: Environment Enrichment for Captive Animals.


Shepherdson, D. J; K. Carlstead; J. D. Mellen, and J. Seidensticker. 1993. The Influence of Food Presentation on the Behaviour of Small Cats in Confined Environments. Zoo Biology. 12: 203-216.


Shepherdson D., and I. Mellen. 1993. First Environmental Enrichment Conference Portland Oregon, Workshop.

Carnivore enrichment guidelines compiled by Kayla Grams, Keeper: Arizona Sonora Desert Museum

Reviewed by:
Gretchen Ziegler, Head keeper, Sequoia Park Zoo
David Shepherdson, Program Scientist, Oregon Zoo
Jill Mellen, Research Biologist, Disney's Animal Kingdom

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Copyrightę  A Wolf Adventure, A Wild Encounter.  All rights reserved, unless stated otherwise via credit to another. Questions about usage of our written work, or photos?  Please contact us. We are always happy to help out others.  please contact  1 (306) 922-4510

Please Note: We are not provincially, or federally funded. We work to support the outreach work, any programs, and the wolves out of our own pockets, NOT the other way around Through your sponsorship and buying wolf gifts from us, you are not supporting US the human caretakers, any funds ALWAYS 100% go towards future educational programs, & expansion/enrichment for the wolves only, we work jobs like everyone else to support ourselves. The wolves are not bred for profit, nor do we make a living off their lives. We believe if wild has to be in captivity, that they should have jobs to help their wild brethren via educating with their wild messages. We believe in keeping wild; wild and thus actively participate via partaking ourselves in, and financially supporting other worthy wildlife rehab organizations, & wildlife/habitat conservation organizations.